What is Safety?
The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury is Called Safety.
What is the accident?
It is an unexpected or unplanned event which may or may not result in injury or damage or property loss or death.
What is the risk?
In probability of the realisation of the potential for loss or damage or injury.
What is a hazard?
The inherent property of a substance or an occurrence which has the potential to cause loss or damage property, person or environment.
What is the incident?
It is an event which represents the deviation from the intended sequence of designed steps.
What is the injury?
It is defined as a harmful condition sustained by the body as a result of an accident.
What is a safety policy?
Any company has a social and legal obligation to provide a safe and healthy working environment for all his improvement to all his employees.
What is safety tag?
Safety tag can be defined a surface made of cardboard or paperboard on which local English languages letters written for warning safety instructions to employees.
What is safety program?
Safety program can be defined as five methods by which accident can be prevented easily they are engineering, education, enforcement, enthusiasm and example safety programs are plain spoken and carry out specific legal steps.
What is safety audit?
The safety audit is the process that identifies unsafe conditions and unsafe acts the plant and recommended safety improvement. Walk through it evaluates the unsafe condition noticeable to the naked eye during work through the plant. ( stores, civil work, erection work)
Inter mediate-more details to study and review of plant design and plant operation.
Comprehensive –it evaluates the safety factors in the plant on the base engineering, analysis, testing, measurement.
What is attitude?
Attitude may be described as continuous behaviour. If man’s behaviour is good, then his action will be either correct or safe.
What is emergency planning?
Emergency planning can be defined as a control measure. It can control the accidents safeguard people and provide information to media.
What is work at height?
Any work above 2 meters from the ground is caused work at height.
What is work permit system?
Work permit system is a “ written documents” for permission to undertake a job by area in charge, or it is written document issued by the area in charge to the performer to undertake the specific job.
What is confined space?
An area which is small and enclosed or an area where one entry and exits or where a man cannot work comfortably in any location is caused confined space.
What is excavation?
Marking a hole or tunnel by digging the ground by man or machine is called excavation.
What is scaffolding?
It is a temporary platform constructed for supporting both men and materials and working Safety at a construction site.
What is gas cutting?
The process of joining of cutting metals by using oxygen and combustible gas is called gas cutting.
What is sandblasting?
The process of removing rust dust, dirt, scales and old prints from the old surface using compressed air is called sandblasting.
What is welding?
The process of joining of metals either by electrical or by gas is called welding.
What is UEL?
The maximum proportion of vapour, gasses, and dust in the air which proposal the flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition is called UEL.
What is painting?
The process after sandblasting is called painting.
What is LEL?
The minimum concentration of vapour, gasses, and dust in air below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition is called LEL.
What is manual handling?
The process of lifting, carrying and stacking materials by men is called manual handing.
What is grinding?
A grinder is a portable machine with a wheel guard in position to reduce the danger.
What is housekeeping?
Housekeeping means not only cleanness but also the orderly arrangement of operations, tools, equipment’s storage facilities and suppliers.
What is personal protective equipment?
It is an equipment’s used to project the person from hazards such dust, dirt, fumes, and sparks etc. It is the barrier between hazard and person.
What is Crane?
A tall machine used for moving heavy objects by suspending them from a projecting arm with a hook.
What is forklift truck?
The forklift truck is designed to handle heavy loads.
What is JSA?
The procedure of analysing job for the specific purpose of finding the hazards and developing.
What are the duties of a supervisor?
He has to instruct these workers about the work methods and procedures.
He has to maintain discipline among the workers
He has to supply necessary materials
He has to control quality and cost of the job
He has to guide has workers in doing a job in the correct and safe way
He has to supply suitable personal protective equipment to his workers
He should conduct periodical safety meetings.
He should conduct a safety inspection of his working area
He should know about the firefighting equipment
He should know investigate the accident and find out the cause of the accident
What are the duties of a safety officer?
Prepare toolbox talk
Prepare monthly statistics
Prepare the checklist
Arrange the safety classes/training
Arrange monthly safety bulletin
Inspection of fire extinguisher
Arrange first aid training classes
Arrange safety competitions like quiz, slogan, poster
Competitions exhibition etc.
What are the precautions for welding?
Remove all combustion material from the place of welding
Clear the work area and wooden cover floor with fireproof mats. (welding mechanic should be kept within the visibility of the welders.
Erect fire resistance screen around the work
All welding cables should be fully insulted
All welding mics shall be double earthed
Welding area should be dry and free from water
Keep the fire extinguisher/sand really
Use leather hand gloves, goggles, and helmets
Switch off the power when welding is stopped
Do not allow the helper to do welding
Do not shift he welding cable unless the electric power is switched off.
Do not allow the helper to carry the welding. The terminal of the welding cables should be provided 3-cable with lugs and kept tight.Oxygen hose in black and acetylene hose in red in colour as per standard
Nrv of the blowtorches should be maintained properly avoid backfire
Welders should be trained properly
Cylinders should be stored in a cold dry place away bottom heat and direct sunlight.
Proper housekeeping, good ventilation in the working area
Smoking should be avoided from the welding area
Hose connection should be proper made
Barricade the work area and put a sign board
Rolling of cylinders should be avoided
Flashback arrestor should be attached to each cylinder
Any leakage of the cylinder should be kept separately
What are the precautions for gas cutting?
Keep the fire extinguisher nearby
Keep fire watch nearby
Remove all combustible from work area
Use all necessary PPE
Never put welding gas cylinder inside a confined space
Hoses shall not be laid in pathways
The gas cutting torch should have flashback arrestors
Gas test to be done to check for the presence of flammable gas in site.
Good housekeeping and ventilation necessary in working area.
Hose connections should be made properly
What are the precautions for “sandblasting”?
The compressed airline, hoses and another fitting must instalment firmly without leaks the hose.
Misuse compress are should be avoided
A fresh air hood or mask must be worn
Housekeeping can be done periodically
Fire extinguish her shall be kept nearby
Dust mask ear plugs/muffs should be used
No sandblasting shall be done on top of floating roof tank in service.
Use goggles & face shield
Sandblasting operation must be gas free
What is the precaution for “painting”?
All flammable material should be cleared from the work area
The required protective clothing and equipment must be worn
Cartridge respirators shall always be worn
Adequate ventilation is necessary
Adequate washing facilities must be readily available
Barrier cream should be applied to the skin
What are the hazards in welding?
Burn injury arc realisation
Electrical shock light arc radiation
Heat, light, and radiation affect heat fume
Poisonous gases chipped price of weld metal
What are hazards and injuries in manual handling?
Cutting fingers due to sharp edges
Burns due to the handling of hot articles
Foot injuries due to dropped articles
Slipped disc due to improper posture in lifting on the object
Strains to wrist or fingers
Sprains, wounds hernias, fractures
Cause of accidents in manual handling?
Carrying too heavy loads
Failure to use PPE
Lifting greasy, oily and irregular objects
What precautions are needed to avoid the accident in manhandling
Stand at the safe distance from the load
Sharp edge and burns are removed before lifting a
PPE such as safety gloves and safety shoes are to be
If the weight is too heavy for one person to lift, then he has to seek the assistance.
The pathway is not blocked by obstacles while carrying the load.
The different actions, movements, and forces necessary while carrying the load.
Modify the task by using hooks and crowbars.
Mechanical equipment like cranes shall be used.
Modify the objects
Change the way things are used.
Tips for manuals handling?
Clear the path
Move in close to the load
Secure your grip
Hold your head upright
Maintain normal curves of the spine
Power the lift with legs and body weight
What are the causes of accidents in mechanical handling?
The sudden failure of wire rope or a chain
Slipping of the load from the sling
Swinging of the load at the time of lifting
The load sometimes hits the man
What are the accidents in “poor housekeeping”?
Men getting hit by falling from overhead
Men slipping as greasy, wet or dirty floor
Men failing in open tank without a cover on the level floor
Accidents due to poor lighting
Fire accidents due to faulty electrical wires
What are the advantages of good housekeeping?
It helps in the reduction of accidents including fire accidents
It saves the property damages
It improves employee morale
The working area becomes presentable
Human energy is conserved
Visitors are very much satisfied
The burden of the supervisor is reduced
How to care and maintenance of hand tools?
Tools must be kept clean and free from corrosion
Keep metal parts lightly oiled
Remove burrs from edges of tools and heads of chisels.
Tools which are not in use must be stored separately
A good worker regularly inspects his tools
Do not use tools without handles
How to prevent accidents of “power tools”?
The operators should wear face shields or safety glasses
Power tools should be placed in the storeroom after use
Power tools should have protected by guards
Pneumatic hoses or electric cables of power tools should not pass through passageways.
The electrical power tools should be properly earthed
Never horseplay with the hose of pneumatic tools
Power tools machines should be maintained and operated properly.
What are the causes of accidents of “hard tools”?
Due to wrong way using tools.
Due to the defective condition of tools
Due to the failure of using right tools for the right job
Due to the wrong way of carrying tools
Due to strong of tools in Safety
What precautions are necessary for electrical work?
All electrical installations shall be as per standard electricity rules
Only competent persons should handle the electrical equipment.
The equipment should be earthed properly
All temporary electric lines should be drawn at least above man’s height
Cable should be completely insulted
Cable should not have any joints
Only connection for one point
Good housekeeping in the area
Fire protection equipment to be kept nearby
Use rubber gloves and rubber boots
Use good quality of wire
Power isolation close to the job
Use three pin plug instead of loose wire
Never operate any electrical equipment with wet hands
Never stand wet surface while working electrical equipment
During thunderstorm do not stand under the tree
The proper signboard is necessary
No person shall work on any live electrical conductor
The switch shall only be put on by the person who switched it off
What are the hazards in construction?
Fall of the person from the top and getting injured
Fall of objects from the top and below person injury
Fall of materials from the top and damaged
The person falls into the excavated pit
The collapse of soil and below person get an injury or may
Damage to ug cables and sewage pipe
The collapse of scaffolding and person fall from a height, get an injury
Fire and explosion
Health and lung problems
Foreign body in the eye
What are the Causes of the accident in construction?
Erection equipment failure
Falling of persons from the height
Non-stop working by worker
Up safe work methods
Collapsing of the earth during trench excavation
Failure of use safety equipment
Working a height without a safety belt
What are the General safety precautions in construction?
Adequate first aid equipment should be kept ready
Adequate fire fighting equipment should be available
All general electrical rules should be followed
Suitable lighting arrangements should be necessary at night work
Workmen at height should be wearing safety belts
Workmen handling cement should be provided with goggles, rubber gloves and rubber boots by nose mask.
The moving parts of grinding machines used construction site should be covered with guards
The moving parts of grinding machines used construction site should be covered with guards
Excavated material should not be kept near the excavated
Very short duration of work red flags must be hoisted and more duration red banners must be stretched
Defective tools should not be used
The worker should not carry tools in his hands when climbing a ladder
Excavation should be guarded by suitable fencing
How to erect scaffolding?
It should be erected on levels firm ground
It erected by trained/skilled person
It is constructed using metal pipes and wooden boards
It should be design and constructed from the good and sound material
Not to be erected on loose earth
Clamps should be fixed
The sole plate is necessary the base of the vertical pipe
Safety precaution of scaffold?
Wooden board not be painted
The wooden board should not to any cracks
Check for rust in pipes/clamps
Clamps should be fixed and good quality
Boards thickness should be 3.4 cms and no bending
The construction must be rigid, properly based
Use of good and sound materials
The wooden bellies have not joint
Vertical poles should not be more than 6 feet
Chains, ropes used for the suspension of scaffoldings
Never throw any materials from a height
Use safety harness while working at above 6 feet
Properly ties to be an arrangement
What controls measures are necessary for confined space?
Enter with airline bar sets
Use 24v flameproof hand lamps
A hole watch to be kept near the manhole
Keep firefighting equipment ready
Gas test to be done to check for oxygen level
Don’t smoke in confined space
Use ropes and harness
The spaces clean before entry
Use non-sparking tools it there is any risk of flammable vapours being present.
Safety rules when using ladders?
The footwear is not greasy, oily and muddy and has a good grip on the rungs.
When climbing or coming down a ladder should be facing the ladder side and had on with both hands.
Carry light tools in pockets in a shoulder bag.
Hold on with at least new hand if the use of both hands then, use safety belt
Never climb higher than the third rung from the top on straight or second tired from the top of the extension ladder.
Stepladder must be fully open and the divider locked
The metal ladder shall not be used near electrical equipment.
The metal ladder shall not be placed on firm footing and at an angle of 75
Any ladder found a defect in any way should be marked do not use
The ladder shall not be placed in a box or drum.
Rubber protection on head and heel of a ladder is necessary.
Safety rules ensuring oxygen cylinders?
Oxygen cylinders should not be kept near combustible materials.
Oxygen cylinders should not be handled with grassy hands or gloves.
Oxygen cylinders and their fittings should not be tested with oil based soap solution.
Oxygen cylinders and other combustible gas cylinders should not be stored together.
The top cover of the cylinder should be kept in position and screwed Safety when not in use.
Cylinders should not be used as rollers for moving materials
Oxygen must not be used for ventilating confined spaces.